In the usual process, the Department of Citizenship and Immigration Services then completes another security review of the applicant — and any of the applicant’s derivatives, meaning spouses and children. After September 11, 2001, the identification process for any visitor became much more technical, advancing from fingerprinting to more robust biometric identification. Once applying for asylum, the government dives deep into background: previous criminal convictions, any hint of involvement with terrorism.Applicants don’t necessarily know if they’ve failed a security check. According to Leopold, the immigration lawyer, they’ll often be told that their application is being held for “administrative processing.” While the application is held, the applicant is allowed to stay in the country, if they’re already here.At the time that the Tsarnaevs applied for asylum, Tamerlan and Dzhokhar were very young. There was almost certainly nothing in their background that would have raised any red flags; apparently, there was nothing in the father’s either. Here, Leopold made a key point: “You can’t predict future behavior.” For any democratic country that wants to participate in international society, Leopold pointed out, you have to assume some level of risk. Despite that, “the systems they have in place,” meaning those security screenings, are “doing the job.”It’s not guaranteed that we’ll learn significantly more about the family given the robust dossier the government has on them. According to Leopold, those records are very hard to have made public.